Developing Critical Historical Consciousness: Re- thinking the Dynamics between History and Memory in History Education
Nyckelord:historical consciousness, memory, history culture, memory culture, history education, epistemology, phenomenology
Over the past 20 years, concepts of historical thinking and historical consciousness have received increasing attention in the field of history education and history didactics. This new orientation in the teaching of history has involved the need to take into account the complexity of the historical discourse and more generally the multiple ways in which people relate to their individual and collective pasts. It has also implied the need to consider the diversity of "places" where history occurs. In this article, I will take a closer look at the relationships between the concepts of historical consciousness and memory, which, to a certain extent, seem to be neglected and misunderstood in the teaching of history and history education in general. More specifically, I will frame what I call a ‘third way’ for history education in relation to Ricoeur’s theories and the connections and nuances he establishes between epistemology of history and phenomenology of memory.