Occurrence of swan hybrids around the Baltic Sea—an outcome of range expansions?


  • Hakon Kampe-Persson
  • Dmitrijs Boiko Natural History Museum of Latvia




hybridisation, interspecific competition, interspecific interaction, breeding success, Anatidae


Spectacular increases in range and numbers of some swan and goose species around the Baltic Sea have resulted in more contacts between species and facilitated mixed breeding. Records of mixed breeding and observations during the non-breeding season of mixed families, mixed pairs and hybrids in which at least one of the parent species was a swan were compiled for Sweden, Finland, Leningrad and Kaliningrad Regions of Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Denmark. There were twelve records of mixed breeding, nine of Mute Swan × Whooper Swan and one each of Mute Swan × Greylag Goose, Mute Swan × Greater Canada Goose and Whooper Swan × Bewick’s Swan. Excluding the two cases involving a goose and two cases involving swans with captive background, there were eight breeding records in the wild. Seven of these can be explained by range expansions. The exception was a case where the identification of the male was unsure.


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How to Cite

Kampe-Persson, H., & Boiko, D. (2011). Occurrence of swan hybrids around the Baltic Sea—an outcome of range expansions?. Ornis Svecica, 21(1), 45–54. https://doi.org/10.34080/os.v21.22609



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