„Pal/ palid” ca epitet metaforic în poezia lui Eminescu / „Pale/ pallid” as metaphorical epithet in Eminescu’s poetry

  • Dinu Moscal Institutul de Filologie Română „A. Philippide” din Iași, România / The “A. Philippide” Institute of Romanian Philology, Iasi, Romania https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8911-3823
Keywords: Eminescu’s poetry; pale; pallid; metaphorical epithet; extra-existential

Abstract

The epithets pal “pale” and palid “pallid” could have been linked here by a conjunction. Instead, they are placed at the same level (pal/ palid) because of their semantic identity in Eminescu’s lyrics. Their importance has been already highlighted by several critics, and especially by I. Negoițescu, who referred to the epithets of pallor as a symbol, and systematically returned to them. By simply identifying these epithets with death or the myth of death, with the angelic purity, but also with the purity of the demon, within expressions such as androginie difuză a morții “diffuse androgyny of death” and demonul palorii “the demon of pallor”, there is no poetic symbol, but only a vague image. Associating these adjectives with characters such as the Poet, the Monarch, the Sleep and the Demiurge, usually at an intuitive level, does not reveal the intended meaning. These epithets appear in Eminescu’s poetry with non-metaphorical meaning as well, that is with denotative or connotative meaning. Instead, the metaphorical meaning belongs to the extra-existential world. The strong occurrence of these adjectives in Mortua est! and the debates around them within this poem since its first publication focused the attention not only to the final version of the text but also to its variants. Pal/ palid does not have a unique meaning in this poem, but we may assume that the connotative meaning is not transcended in any of its versions, including the last one. As a metaphorical epithet, pal/ palid is associated with the lyrical creation as act and as purpose, as well as with the pure ideal which is situated outside the dichotomy of life–death (being–non-being), either as a reality of the poetic thought or as a mythical reality. The poems in which pal/ palid carries this metaphorical meaning are: Venere și Madonă/ Venus and Madonna, Epigonii/ The Epigons, Luceafărul/ The evening star, Povestea magului călător în stele/ The story of the magician who travels to the stars, Mureșanu. Tablou dramatic/ Mureșanu. Dramatic tableau and Memento mori. The metaphorical ʻextra-existential’ meaning differs from any concept of overcoming the antagonism being–non-being which is highly represented in Eminescu’s poetry. It supposes placement outside this antagonism.

Author Biography

Dinu Moscal, Institutul de Filologie Română „A. Philippide” din Iași, România / The “A. Philippide” Institute of Romanian Philology, Iasi, Romania

Dinu Moscal is researcher at the Department of Toponymy within the “A. Philippide” Institute of Romanian Philology (Romanian Academy – Iași Branch). Areas of competence: semantics, lexicology-lexicography, toponymy, history of the Romanian language, translation studies. Author of Teoria câmpurilor lexicale. Cu aplicaţie la terminologia populară a formelor de relief pozitiv [Theory of lexical fields. With application to the popular terminology of positive relief forms] and co-author of Mic Dicționar Toponimic al Moldovei (structural și etimologic). Partea I. Toponime personale [The small toponymic dictionary of Moldavia (structural and etymological). Part I. Personal place names], Iași, 2014; Monumenta Linguae Dacoromanorum. Biblia 1688 (Pars X.I, XII, XIX, XXI, XXIII), Iași, 2015; Practici de traducere a numelor proprii în scrisul românesc premodern (1780-1830) [Proper names in the Romanian pre-modern writing (1780-1830): translation practices], Iași, 2017. Collaborator to DÉRom – Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (since 2019).

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Published
2020-04-17
How to Cite
Moscal, D. (2020). „Pal/ palid” ca epitet metaforic în poezia lui Eminescu / „Pale/ pallid” as metaphorical epithet in Eminescu’s poetry. Swedish Journal of Romanian Studies, 3(1), 51-63. https://doi.org/10.35824/sjrs.v3i1.20413