Lessons of Feedback in Higher Education in Sweden


  • Peter Persson
  • Stephen Marr
  • Klas Hjort
  • Arun Rana
  • Alfredo Mendoza


feedback, higher education, PhD education, supervision, pedagogy


Lessons learned in the feedback process are a two-sided coin that ultimately guide the PhD candidate towards becoming an independent researcher as well as educating “reader/docents” in their role as supervisor. Building on a brief literature review, observations from 14 interviewed PhD candidates were reflected upon and these are the suggested lessons learned. The study’s preliminary findings suggest that feedback is most productive when it is organized, systematic, and tends to offer guidance rather than direct instruction. Perhaps of greatest significance is the need to have consistent dialogue about the feedback’s form and content between student and supervisor(s).