Förändring av EU:s politik för energieffektivitet
Policyförändring genom intern chock och policyorienterat lärande
Changing EU policy on energy efficiency: Policy change through internal shock and policy-oriented learning
Energy efficiency has been highlighted as a key area to meet high ambitions in EU climate policy. This paper applies the Advocacy Coalition Framework to analyse recent changes of EU policy on energy efficiency, with particular focus on provisions on individual metering and billing of thermal energy in multi-apartment buildings. This area has rendered substantial discussion for a decade, with EU provisions being substantially revised after successful advocacy work by the advocacy coalition opposing individual metering and billing. The study confirms recent developments of the Advocacy Coalition Framework that internal shocks are important for policy change. The policy change followed other pathways too, e.g. through policy-oriented learning. As for policy-oriented learning, it occurred in different ways, e.g. the acceptance of the core beliefs and proposals for amending the provisions on individual metering and billing put forward by the coalition opposing individual metering and billing by a majority of Member States in the Council, the European Parliament and the proponents of individual metering and billing. Besides contributing to the development of scientific theory, the knowledge provided in the paper can inform various stakeholders to better shape their future strategies in advocacy work in EU policy-making.