Norwegian Influences on Spanish Modernism: Ibsen, Hamsun and Unamuno
Scarcely has the influence of Norwegian literature on Spanish letters been
researched. Generally speaking, Norwegian authors have remained largely
unknown to Spanish scholars and readers, to the point that Spanish
translations of, for instance, Bjørnson’s and Hamsun’s works are, still today, a
rarity. Gagen (69) has sustained, some Scandinavian playwrights, particularly
Ibsen and Strindberg, were known in Spanish literary circles already in the
1890s; yet the quantity of critical studies into their reception in Spain is scarce.
This situation has limited our understanding of Spanish Modernism; for
example, Nil Santiáñez (119) has contended that Spain was the first nation
where the term modernism was used to put Spanish literature at the front of
Modernism; however, there had been a Modernist or pre-Modernist literary
trend in Scandinavia known as det moderne Gennembruds Mænd (the men of
the modern breakthrough), as Georg Brandes called it in 1883.