Testing the Effects of Personality-Related Beliefs on Micro-PK





micro-psychokinesis, micro-PK, mind-matter interactioin, quantum measurement, intentional observation, personality traits, Unus Mundus, Model of Pragmatic Information


Objective.This preregistered study investigates mind-matter interactions by testing observer effects on quantum random number generator (QRNG) outcomes mediated by implicit intentions. Methods. We evaluated participants' personality traits (PTs), and presented them with goal-related or neutral stimuli based on QRNG outputs. We predicted deviations from chance, with high PT scorers expected to observe more PT-related sentences. We conducted three micro-psychokinesis (micro-PK) experiments for Cluster C's PTs: dependent, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive. Results. The results revealed strong evidence (Bayes Factor > 10) for a micro-PK effect in the dependent PT group, with high scorers observing more sentences addressing their concerns than expected by chance. We did not find strong evidence for the other PT groups or low scorers. Conclusion. These findings suggest that intentional observation biases QRNG outcomes related to individuals' implicit concerns, potentially leading to self-fulfilling prophecies. The study's implications are discussed within the Unus Mundus model and the Model of Pragmatic Information.


Alcock, J. E. (2003). Give the null hypothesis a chance: reasons to remain doubtful about the existence of psi. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10(6-7), 29–50.

Atmanspacher, H. (2014). 20th century variants of dual-aspect thinking. Mind and Matter, 12(2), 245–288.

Atmanspacher, H. (2020). The Pauli–Jung Conjecture and its relatives: A formally augmented outline. Open Philosophy, 3, 527–549. https://doi.org/10.1515/opphil-2020-0138

Atmanspacher, H, & Fach, W. (2013). A structural-phenomenological typology of mind-matter correlations. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 58(2), 219–244. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5922.12005

Atmanspacher, H., Primas, H., & Wertenschlag-Birkhäuser, E. (Eds.). (2013). Der Pauli-Jung-Dialog und seine Bedeutung für die moderne Wissenschaft [The Pauli-Jung-Dialogue and its impact on modern science]. Springer.

Atmanspacher, H., Römer, H., & Walach, H. (2002). Weak quantum theory: Complementarity and entanglement in physics and beyond. Foundations of Physics, 32, 379–406. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014809312397

Ben-David, B. M., van Lieshout, P. H., & Leszcz, T. (2011). A resource of validated affective and neutral sentences to assess identification of emotion in spoken language after a brain injury. Brain Injury, 25(2), 206–220. https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2010.536197

Bierman, D. J. (2001). On the nature of anomalous phenomena: Another reality between the world of subjective consciousness and the objective world of physics. The physical nature of consciousness, 269–292. https://doi.org/10.1075/aicr.29.12bie

Born, M. (1926). Quantenmechanik der Stoßvorgänge [Quantum mechanics of collisions]. Zeitschrift für Physik, 38, 803–827. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01397184

Bösch, H., Steinkamp, F., & Boller, E. (2006). Examining psychokinesis: the interaction of human intention with random number generators—a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(4), 497. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.497

Cardeña, E. (2018). The experimental evidence for parapsychological phenomena: a review. The American Psychologist, 73(5), 663–677. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000236

Cardeña, E., Palmer, J., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century. McFarland.

Chalmers, D. J. (1995). Facing up to the problem of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2(3), 200–219.

Dechamps, M. C., & Maier, M. A. (2019). How smokers change their world and how the world responds: Testing the oscillatory nature of micro-psychokinetic observer effects on addiction-related stimuli. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 33(3), 406–434. https://doi.org/10.31275/2019/1513

Dechamps, M. C., Maier, M. A., Pflitsch, M., & Duggan, M. (2021). Observer dependent biases of quantum randomness: Effect stability and replicability. Journal of Anomalous Experience and Cognition, 1(1–2). https://doi.org/10.31156/jaex.23205

de Leeuw, J. R. (2015). jsPsych: A JavaScript library for creating behavioral experiments in a web browser. Behavior Research Methods, 47, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0458-y

Elliot, A. J. (2008). Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation. Taylor & Francis.

Filk, T., & Römer, H. (2011). Generalized Quantum Theory: Overview and latest developments. Axiomathes, 21, 211–220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10516-010-9136-6

Greenstein, G., & Zajonc, A. G. (2006). The quantum challenge: Modern research on the 544

foundations of quantum mechanics (2nd ed.). Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Jahn, R. G., & Dunne, B. J. (1997). Science of the subjective. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11(2), 201–224.

Jahn, R., Dunne, B., Bradish, G., Dobyns, Y., Lettieri, A., Nelson, R., ...Vaitl, D. (2000). Mind/machine interaction consortium: PortREG replication experiments. Journal of

Scientific Exploration, 14, 499–555.

Jahn, R. G., Dunne, B. J., & Nelson, R. D. (1987). Engineering anomalies research. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 1, 21–50.

Jakob, M. J., Dechamps, M. C., & Maier, M. A. (2020). You attract what you are: The effect of unconscious needs on micro-Psychokinesis. Journal of Parapsychology, 84, 227–253. http://doi.org/10.30891/jopar.2020.02.06

Kuhl, J., & Kazén, M. (1997). PSSI Persönlichkeits-Stil- und Störungs-Inventar [Personality Style and Disorders Inventory]. Hogrefe.

Maier, M. A., & Dechamps, M. C. (2018). Observer effects on quantum randomness: Testing micro-psychokinetic effects of smokers on addiction-related stimuli. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 32(2). http://doi.org/10.31275/2018.1250

Maier, M. A., Dechamps, M. C., & Rabeyron, T. (2022). Quantum measurement as pragmatic information transfer: Observer effects on (S) objective reality formation. Journal of Anomalous Experience and Cognition, 2(1), 16–48. https://doi.org/10.31156/jaex.23535

Mensky, M. B. (2014). Everett interpretation and quantum concept of consciousness. NeuroQuantology, 11. https://doi.org/10.14704/nq.2013.11.1.635

Mossbridge, J., & Radin, D. (2021). Psi performance as a function of demographic and personality factors in smartphone-based tests: Using a “SEARCH” Approach. Journal of Anomalous Experience and Cognition, 1(1-2), 78–113. https://doi.org/10.31156/jaex.23419

Penrose, R., & Hameroff, S. (2011). Consciousness in the universe: Neuroscience, quantum space-time geometry and Orch OR theory. Journal of Cosmology, 14, 1–17.

Pradhan, R. K. (2012). Psychophysical interpretation of quantum theory. arXiv preprintarXiv:1206.6095. https://doi.org/10.31156/jaex.23419

Rabeyron, T. (2020). Why most research findings about psi are false: the replicability crisis, the psi paradox and the myth of Sisyphus. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2468. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.562992

Radin, D. (2006). Entangled minds: Extrasensory experiences in a quantum reality. Paraview.

Radin, D. I., & Nelson, R. D. (1989). Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems. Foundations of Physics, 19(12), 1499–1514. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00732509

Radin, D., Nelson, R., Dobyns, Y., & Houtkooper, J. (2006). Reexamining psychokinesis:

Comment on the Bösch, Steinkamp and Boller (2006) meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(4), 529–532. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.529

Sachse, R. (2001). Psychologische Psychotherapie der Persönlichkeitsstörungen [Psychotherapy of personality disorders]. Hogrefe.

Schmidt, H. (1974). Comparison of PK action on two different random number generators. The Journal of Parapsychology, 38(1), 47–55.

Stanford, R. G. (1976). A study of motivational arousal and self-concept in psi-mediated instrumental response. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 70(2), 167–178.

Stanford, R. G. (1990). An experimentally testable model for spontaneous psi events: A review of related evidence and concepts from parapsychology and other sciences. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research (Vol. 6, pp. 54–161). McFarland & Co.

Stanford, R. G., Zenhausern, T. A., & Dwyer, M. A. (1975). Psychokinesis as psi-mediated instrumental response. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 69(2), 127–133.

Stapp, H. P. (2007). Mindful universe. Quantum mechanics and the participating observer. Springer.

Sulz, S. (2000). Verhaltensdiagnostik und Fallkonzeption [Behavioral diagnostics and case conception]. CIP-Medien.

Sulz, S., Beste, E., Kerber, A. C., Rupp, E., Scheuerer, R., & Schmidt, A. (2009). Neue Beiträge zur Standarddiagnostik in Psychotherapie und Psychiatrie—Validität und Reliabilität der VDS90-Symptomliste und VDS30-Persönlichkeitsskalen [New contributions to standard diagnostics in psychotherapy and psychiatry—validity and reliability of the VDS90 symptom list and VDS30 personality scales]. Psychotherapie in Psychiatrie, psychotherapeutischer Medizin und klinischer Psychologie, 14, 215–234.

Sulz, S., Gräff-Rudolph, U., & Jakob, C. (1998). Persönlichkeit und Persönlichkeitsstörung-Eine empirische Untersuchung der VDS-Persönlichkeitsskalen [Personality and personality disorder-An empirical investigation of the VDS Personality Scales.]. Psychotherapie, 3, 46–56.

Sulz, S. K., & Müller, S. (2000). Bedürfnisse, Angst und Wut als Komponenten der Persönlichkeit [Needs, fear and anger as components of personality]. Psychotherapie in Psychiatrie, Psychotherapeutischer Medizin und Klinischer Psychologie, 5(1), 22–37.

Varvoglis, M., & Bancel, P. A. (2015). Micro-psychokinesis. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz (Eds.), Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century (pp. 266–281). McFarland.

von Lucadou, W., Römer, H., & Walach, H. (2007). Synchronistic phenomena as entanglement correlations in generalized quantum theory. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 14, 50–74.

von Lucadou, W. (2015, July). The correlation-matrix method (CMM): A new light upon the repeatability problem of parapsychology. In Paper for the 58th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association and 39th SPR International Annual Conference, University of Greenwich.

Wagenmakers, E.-J., Wetzels, R., Borsboom, D., & van der Maas, H. L. J. (2011). Why psychologists must change the way they analyze their data: the case of psi: comment on Bem (2011). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(3), 426–432. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0022790

Wilson, Colin (1985). Afterlife: An investigation of the evidence for dife after death. Harrap.

Zerssen, D. v. (1993). Normal and abnormal variants of premorbid personality in functional disorders. Conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Personality Disorders, 7(2), 116–136. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.1993.7.2.116




How to Cite

Jakob, M.-J., Dechamps, M., & Maier, M. (2024). Testing the Effects of Personality-Related Beliefs on Micro-PK. Journal of Anomalous Experience and Cognition, 4(1), 34–59. https://doi.org/10.31156/jaex.23809



Empirical Papers