Anomalous Cognition: An Umbrella Review of the Meta-Analytic Evidence


  • Patrizio Tressoldi Studium Patavinum Università degli Studi di Padova
  • Lance Storm School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia



anomalous cognition, meta-analysis, free response, forced choice, ´physiological responses, psi, esp


Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the results of all meta-analyses on anomalous cognition conducted between 1989 and 2021 in order to find moderators associated with greater effect sizes.  Method: We included all meta-analyses of studies related to anomalous cognition published up to 2021. Results: Our dataset, accumulated over more than 80 years of investigation, refers to 11 meta-analyses related to six different states of consciousness. The evidence clearly shows that anomalous cognition seems possible and its effects can be enhanced by using a combination of some non-ordinary or altered states of consciousness (e.g., dreaming, ganzfeld, etc.), coupled with free-response procedures, or neurophysiological dependent variables. These conditions facilitate an alternative form of cognition seemingly unconstrained by the known biological characteristics of the sense organs and the brain. Conclusion: The accumulated evidence expands our understanding of the mind-brain relation and the nature of the human mind.




How to Cite

Tressoldi, P., & Storm, L. (2021). Anomalous Cognition: An Umbrella Review of the Meta-Analytic Evidence. Journal of Anomalous Experience and Cognition, 1(1-2).



Research articles