Languages with pulmonic ingressive speech

updating and adding to the list

  • Robert Eklund


Speaking on inhalation, pulmonic ingressive speech, is well-known in Scandinavia and often believed to be unique to this part of the world. It has, however been shown (Eklund, 2002, 2007, 2008) that not only is ingressive speech not confined to the northernmost part of Europe, it is found all over the world and might be regarded as a linguistic universal, and can be placed in one of the different universal categories described by Croft (2003). In connection with the Eklund (2008) publication, a website was created, devoted to ingressive speech and phonation: Over the years incoming comments and reports have both offered further evidence for languages already on the list, as well as new languages with ingressives. Some of these are described in this paper.