Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning <p>Scandia är en historievetenskaplig tidskrift som behandlar centrala teman i nordisk historieforskning. Tyngdpunkten ligger på nordisk och övrig europeisk historia samt på historisk teori/metod och historiografi. Tidskriften utkommer två gånger om året. Scandia klassificeras som en nivå 1-tidskrift enligt <a href=";bibsys=false" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Norska listan.</a></p> Srray sv-SE Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 0036-5483 Redaktören har ordet Svante Norrhem Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2 Jordpris och jordränta i den senmedeltida krisen <p>The late medieval agrarian crisis has been discussed in Swedish research for a long time. While there is general agreement that rents declined from the mid-fourteenth century and onwards, there are different opinions with regard to the chronology of this process. There is also disagreement regarding the extent to which the Church was affected by this crisis. In order to achieve a more reliable view of the crisis, we need to gather the available information on land prices and rents in a more systematic way. This article presents a long time series based on about 1,300 purchases of real estate property in the Lake Mälar provinces and about 2,100 quotations relating to the size and composition of the rent during the period of 1274–1540. In these provinces, farm sizes were often set in a number of öresland. These öresland were not fixed areas but rather a measure of the production capacity of the farm. As a rough average, one öresland corresponded to about three hectares of land, out of which half was sown each year.</p> <p>Using this information, it is possible to construct a time series of land prices and rents per öresland. The main source used here is SDHK (Svenskt Diplomatariums huvudkartotek), a digital publication providing information on about 44,000 documents up to 1540.</p> <p>The main results may be summarized as follows. <br>Land prices rose substantially before the Black Death and remained at a very high level up to about 1370. A long period of falling prices followed until about 1420/30. There was no clear trend during the remainder of the fifteenth century, while the first four decades of the sixteenth century were characterized by a downward pressure on land prices. The evolution of rent is fairly similar to that of land prices. However, rents rose relative to the land price during the first decades of the fourteenth century and reached a very high level before the Black Death. Subsequently, rents fell until the 1430s.</p> <p>Which social category was the most adversely affected by the declining rent? The answer depends on the time perspective. For the period as a whole, 1274–1540, the nobility suffered the greatest loss. During the century following the Black Death, however, the Church lost more than the nobility and the commoners, while the latter fared best.</p> <p>The Church retrogressed as a buyer of land in the second half of the fourteenth century. Despite increased activity during the latter part of the fifteenth century, it is clear that the Church was less successful as a buyer<br>in the long run, compared to noblemen and commoners.</p> <p>The nobility advanced substantially as a buyer of land, particularly during the half-century following the Black Death. During the same period, the nobility also increased the size of their purchases, while they also paid a higher price per öresland compared to the other categories.</p> <p>However, the view of the nobility advancing strongly is modified when we not only study purchases but also sales. The net result of purchases and sales was positive for the Church, but negative for nobility and commoners. The Church sold only relatively small parts of their land.</p> <p>Commoners gradually became more active in the land market. In the long run, trade in land was to comprise larger units than previously. Before 1400, the median size of purchases was around 3 1/2 öresland, which was probably less than what was needed for subsistence. During the first half of the fifteenth century, the median size grew to four öresland, and in the second half of the century it exceeded five öresland. This trend is to be seen against the backdrop of falling land prices, enabling greater numbers of people to buy sufficiently large farms. It corresponds with the increased emphasis during the late medieval period on promoting the view that peasants should cultivate as much land as was sufficient for the provision of the household, taxes and other dues.</p> <p>Nor should the amount of land cultivated be too large. The law of 1442 outlawed a peasant to buy more freehold land than he needed for being adequately provisioned (fullsutten). This law was part of a broader set of anti-capitalist regulations aiming to limit the role of capital in the farmland trade. The late medieval land price decline may have produced favorable conditions for applying these regulations, thereby contributing to counteracting a deeper socioeconomic polarization among peasants.</p> <p>Finally, some calculations of profitability (the ratio of rent to price) have been carried out. They suggest that the average of this ratio was around five percent (a median of seven percent) during the fourteenth century as well as during the first half of the fifteenth century.</p> <p>Profitability rose somewhat during the second half of the fifteenth century, but a clear upward trend cannot be seen until the early sixteenth century. It may be surprising that profitability was stable for a long time after the Black Death, but we should keep in mind that land prices fell as much or even more than rents.</p> Johan Söderberg Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2 Martin Luthers syn på kvinden som hustru og hersker <p>This article offers a theological analysis of Martin Luther’s complex view on women and their role in society with the aim of informing future historical studies on the influence of this view on Lutheran confessional culture in post-reformation Scandinavia. Luther’s conception of women is characterised by an ostensible paradox. On the one hand, Luther maintains that all women are equal to men in relation to God and created to rule over the earth. According to Luther, women execute their God-given power to rule in the household, which they manage together with their husbands. On the other hand, however, Luther passes on a traditional view of women being of a weaker nature than men and argues that wives have to subordinate to<br>their husbands in order to suppress sin and tame this weak nature.</p> <p>In this article, I argue that this paradox mirrors the view on women in the two biblical creation narratives. The first narrative emphasises the common dominion of both men and women over the earth, whereas the second narrative unfolds the divinely sanctioned role of women as subordinate to men. Moreover, I claim that Luther’s creation-theological view on women must be understood in light of his doctrine of justification, which argues that men and women alike are determined by both sin and righteousness. As righteous, women are equal to men in their relation to God and are part of the common priesthood of all believers, whereby they become priests with authority to teach and kings ruling over a spiritual realm. According to Luther, faith authorises both men and women to manage their own relationship to God without ecclesiastical intermediaries. Luther even claims that both sexes are allowed to break with their obedience to authorities that interfere with their relationship with God. As sinners, though, women have to subordinate to their husbands in order to suppress sin. Moreover, both men and women have to obey the prince and other earthly authorities acting as representatives of God.</p> <p>In this way, Luther’s view on women is defined by his paradoxical theological anthropology, which argues that both men and women are free, equal, and capable of maintaining loving and trusting relationships with God and fellow human beings through faith while remaining sinners in need of earthly authorities to suppress their sin. On this basis, I analyse Luther’s view on women as presented in his exposition of the Creation narrative and the Fall narrative in the Lectures on Genesis. Finally, I discuss whether Luther’s view on women leads to patriarchal social structures imprisoning women in their homes or whether the freedom and equality of the spiritual realm over time filters through to the understanding of the role of women in society and – together with Luther’s emphasis on female authority in the household – paves the way for the liberation of women.</p> Sasja Emilie Mathiasen Stopa Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2 Folkhemmets prosekulära aktörer <p>The secularization of Sweden gained momentum during the second half of the 20th century. Today, Sweden is regarded as one of the most secularized countries in the world, suggesting that the influence of religious institutions in society is relatively limited and that individuals are not engaged or interested in systems of religious belief. Objective and so-called “traditional” values are less prevalent, in favour of subjectivity and authenticity. Research on the secularization of Sweden has, on the one hand, focused on large, structural processes, such as industrialization, and, on the other hand, on more actor-oriented approaches involving certain historical figures, such as the philosopher Ingemar Hedenius. There has been less focus on the ten pro-secular organizations that existed during the period actively working towards increased religious freedom or the separation of civil and religious institutions. This article examines The Association for Religious Freedom (Förbundet för religionsfrihet), led by author Per Anders Fogelström and politician Ture Nerman.</p> <p>This association was active between 1952 and 1972 in the context of the “golden age” of the social democratic and social liberal welfare state. We focus in particular on its endeavours to create and spread civil (i.e., non-religious) funeral rituals. The association represented a secular humanism and held that the unreflective use of the Christian funeral ritual of the state church contributed to maintaining the church’s cultural monopoly as well as a passive, routine-like conception of life and society. The civil funeral rituals promoted by the association were intended to be manifestations of equality, dignity, freedom of choice and authenticity, while at the same time intended to serve as cultural levers toward a more enlightened, free-thinking and dynamic Swedish citizen in a modern secular society. According to the association, it should be the duty of the government to ensure that the individual could live and die without being forced to rely on religious institutions. The government should be the guarantor of spiritual progress. Hence, as the association saw it, the role of the secular Swedish welfare state – sometimes called “ folkhemmet” (the people’s home) – should be to embed the citizen from the cradle to, literally, the grave.</p> Rebecka Dahlkvist Jonny Hjelm Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2 Scandia introducerar: Ny dynastisk historia <p><em>Är det möjligt att diskutera ett nytt forskningsfält som heter ”ny dynastisk historia”? Fanns det då något som vi brukade benämna ”gammal dynastisk historia”? Detta bidrag hävdar att en ny dynastiska historia faktiskt finns – ett fält som har vuxit ut ur många andra fält, såsom statsbildningshistoria, hovstudier, adelsstudier, kvinnohistoria, familjehistoria med mera. Nya insikter om alla dessa fält tillåter en omvärdering av kanske ett av de äldsta inom historieämnet nämligen dynastisk historia. Genom nya perspektiv och forskningsmetoder förvandlas ett ämne som kan verka vara gammaldags och ointressant till något innovativt med stor påverkan på alla fält det växte ut ur.</em> [...]</p> Liesbeth Geevers Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2 Scandia utblick: Om behovet av Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon <p>Om tillkomsten av <em>Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon </em>(SKBL)</p> Maria Sjöberg Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2 Temarecension: Kvinnors mode och konsumtion under luppen <p>I två nya monografier riktas blicken mot kvinnors klädmode och konsumtionsmönster i Sverige under sent 1800- och tidigt 1900-tal.<br><em>Korsettkriget. Modeslaveri och kvinnokamp vid förra sekelskiftet.</em><br><em>Den magiska spegeln. Kvinnan och varan i pressens annonser 1870–1914.</em></p> Eva Blomberg Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2 Recensioner <p>--</p> - - Copyright (c) 2019 Scandia : Tidskrift för historisk forskning 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 85 2