Lychnos: Årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoria <p><em>Lychnos: Årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoria </em>har sedan 1936 publicerat idéhistorisk forskning och ämnesrelevanta recensioner på de skandinaviska språken och engelska.</p> Lärdomshistoriska samfundet sv-SE Lychnos: Årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoria 0076-1648 Fosterexperimentens produktiva hemlighet <p>In recent years, secrecy and openness in science and related questions about the selective flow of knowledge and the production of ignorance has emerged as an important topic in historical and social studies of science. This paper deals with the circulation of information and knowledge about medical research on aborted human foetuses in Sweden, primarily during the 1960s and the 1970s. The aim is to investigate how individual and institutional actors developed and made use of strategies for “selective openness” about foetal experimentation, and the implications for the control of in- formation and public debate. Drawing on media coverage, official documents, letters and interviews the analysis shows that governmental authorities and medical experts tried to influence which knowledge became available to whom. Yet, they still had to interact with and respond to public criticism. A central argument is that secrecy is a productive phenomenon that generates various sorts of social effects. By relating to the experiments as a secret worthy of protection, and helped by some media, the medical researchers developed a “moral economy”. Another aspect is the amount of conflicting information and knowledge claims about “life”, “death” and “viability” that were produced in the wake of public protests and negative attention around the research. The secret, it turns out, had a multifaceted character.</p> Solveig Jülich ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Sublima landskap, subalterna rum <p>The purpose of this article is to articulate the lived experience of the workers who built the Subarctic Railroad 1898–1902. The article explores how worker’s experiences relate to conventional histories of the industrialization of the Swedish far north, arguing that said industrialization was not only capitalist, but also colonial. In particular, it examines ideas and practices related to the spatial conditions along the railroad, and the social practices, aesthetic values and nationalist mythologies those conditions inspired. In order to express a counter-narrative to patriarchal-colonial representations of history and to discover previously excluded subject positions, railroad worker’s accounts have been analyzed through a theoretical and methodological framework informed by feminist postcolonial theory with a focus on space and materiality. The article finds that colonial tropes are frequent in texts produced by elites, but rare in railroad worker’s accounts. Instead, the latter are characterized by the violence that colonial and capitalist practices have in common. For female workers, the ambivalence of rural colonial space enabled a certain degree of boundary transgression, yet at the cost of abjection.</p> Leyla Belle Drake ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Tocqueville, equality and individualisation <p>The purpose of this article is to elucidate the Swedish postwar educational landscape by reactivating the French diplomat and proto sociologist Alexis de Tocqueville’s reflections on the promises and challenges of democratic society. Writing in the initial stages of the developing modern society, he addressed challenges of a fundamental character that I maintain can open up new perspectives on the changes of pre-university education from 1945 until today. I activate four closely intertwined ideas from his reflections on democratic society in <em>De la démocratie en Amérique</em> and expound how these analytical categories can be mobilised to discern hitherto overseen aspects of the political reforms around 1990. I emphasise in particular how Tocqueville’s reflections on a specific form of individual-centred equality can enhance our understanding of how a neoliberal logic permeated the educational sphere in particular – and political life more generally – from the 1990s onwards.</p> Tomas Wedin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Slagen av abstraktioner <p>One key critique Karl Marx (1818–1883) addresses to the political economists is their lack of an adequate force of abstraction [Abstraktionskraft], which provides our only tool available when analysing economic forms. In his <em>Grundrisse</em> (1857–1858), Marx writes that individuals in bourgeois society are ruled by abstractions. This article aims to reconstruct a Marxian methodology by focusing on the category of abstract labour as a key to his theory. Many modes of abstraction are at work in the category <em>abstract labour</em>. The article challenges the claim by leading scholars that Marx got this category wrong from the start, remaining ambivalent throughout his writing. By investigating Marx’s analysis of labour-power and wage-labour, the article sheds new light on the canonical definition of abstract labour. This article uses manuscripts, letters, and specifically Marx’s critique of David Ricardo, as well as a reading of later stages in <em>Das Kapital</em> (1867) to show how Marx’s use of abstract labour throughout his oeuvre is consistent with his dialectical presentation of the concept in <em>Das Kapital</em>. It suggests that Marx consistently reveals the social abstraction of the substance of value and capital, i.e. abstract labour, as a <em>Realabstraktion</em> dominating individuals in bourgeois society through money and capital.</p> Henrik Jung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Brännspegeln som myt och objekt <p>The Army Museum’s collections include a unique burning mirror. There is no equivalent in any other museum collection in the world. It was long claimed that the mirror came to Sweden as a war trophy from Prague in 1648. Most recently, in 2006, the Czech historian Beket Bukovinska made this claim and presented a number of circumstances in support of her thesis. This text tests this thesis and describes the burning mirror, which has taken on the air of a mythical artefact. Burning mirrors have appeared in stories since classical antiquity, when Archimedes is claimed to have destroyed a fleet at Syracuse with the help of burning mirrors. Their ability to create high temperatures and thereby melt metal gave the mirrors an obvious place in the alchemist’s laboratory during the early modern period. We can now safely trace this mirror’s history to the university in Greifswald in 1751. Prior to this, its past is speculation or cloaked in uncertainty. The desire to insert this odd artefact into different historical contexts likely has led to interpretations based on weak historic foundations. This text uses the artefact biographical method, which today has a strong foothold among researchers interested in our material cultural heritage. Through the mirror’s more than 400-year history, we can follow how it has been included in a variety of narratives.</p> Olov Amelin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Sanning och lydnad <p>The publicist Carl Christoffer Gjörwell (1731–1811) was an important figure in the Swedish eighteenth-century public sphere. Besides collecting and disseminating news, he served as a propagandist for first the ruling Hat Party, then King Gustav III (1746–1792). This article highlights Gjörwell’s double function as publicist and propagandist by investigating how he represented Gustav III at the beginning and at the end of the ever-more autocratic monarch’s reign; more specifically, the renderings of Gustav’s <em>coup d’état</em> (1772) and the war against Russia (1788–1790). On a more general level, the analysis explores an oft-neglected facet of the early modern public sphere, namely the presence of the powers that be in the expansive media landscape. In so doing, the study contributes to the ongoing revision of Jürgen Habermas’ thesis about an autonomous and oppositional public sphere, which has rightfully been criticised for not recognizing the substantial role played by the state.</p> Mathias Persson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Miscellanea <p>Bo Lindberg, <em>Tidigmoderna nationalkaraktärer. John Barclay och folken i Europa</em></p> * * * ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Humanvetenskaplig internationalisering som ideal och praktik <p>-</p> Kirsti Niskanen Per Wisselgren ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Möjlighetsstrukturer och excellens <p>American private foundations played a special role in the internationalization of European social science research during the inter-war years. Especially the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) brought forward its reform-oriented vision of the social sciences by awarding large grants to centers of excellence in Europe, among them <em>Socialforskningsinstitutet</em> in Stockholm. This article studies a specific, in-academic aspect of this form of internationalization, namely the foundation’s evaluative culture and how the funding helped to create opportunities for academic advancement.<em> Excellence</em> and <em>impersonality</em> were the key features in the foundation’s cultural script in the selection of fellows. The assessment criteria were pragmatic: researchers would have a good position to return to after the scholarship stays, be able to present recommendations from leading senior researchers and commit to returning to their home departments. The evaluation process had some resemblance of peer review, although evaluations were made internally, without collegial assessment by external experts. By long-standing and close contacts with trusted scholars, the aim was to create a basis for informed assessments of the quality of the various research environments and the researchers involved in them. The funding helped to open and widen the contact surfaces with international research and to the creation of transnational research communities where stays abroad, international contacts and networks served as an academic qual- ification. The funding thus contributed to the homogenization of social science research. The foundation’s outwardly friendly but practically dismissive attitude to women as scholars, based on a traditional view of the relationship between women and men, strengthened the already skewed gender structures in academia.</p> Niskanen Kirsti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Sociologisering, disciplinering, amerikanisering <p>The main aim of the article is to investigate the relation between a national and an international sphere from the perspective of the history of social science, with special focus on the history of criminology. To achieve that aim this article narrows in on the visit to Sweden by one specific individual important to Swedish criminology. World renowned American sociologist and criminologist, Thorsten Sellin, spent the academic year of 1946/47 in Sweden, invited and financed by the Swedish government. I analyze his activities in Sweden and by examining how an authority in interna- tional criminology presented himself and his science to a Swedish audience I am given the opportunity to raise questions concerning what internationalization can entail. I analyze this process of internationalization of Swedish criminology, which Sellin’s visit to Sweden represent, through three concrete manifestations, which I have chosen to call sociologiszation, disciplinization and Americanization. It’s shown in the article how Sellin brought new dimensions into Swedish criminology while at the same time his ability to do so was dependent on the characteristics of the Swedish context. Sociologiszation, disciplinization and Americanization of Swedish criminology was processes already set in motion when Sellin arrived, but I argue that Sellin’s activities on Swedish soil accelerated those processes. I conclude therefore that internationalization always also has to be understood as re-nationalization.</p> Anders Pedersson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 ”Forskningen om individ och samhälle måste internationaliseras” <p>Early post-World War II international social science was marked by paradoxical tendencies. On the one hand it experienced a rapid expansion underblown by a new optimistic internationalism. On the other hand, many of the initiatives taken were increasingly affected by emerging Cold War tensions. Embedded in these cross-currents of internationalism and geopolitics, UNESCO’s Department of Social Sciences (SSD) played a key role. The aim of this article is to analyze Alva Myrdal’s social scientific internationalism during her term as Director of UNESCO’s SSD, 1950–1955, in the context of other contemporary ideas on international social science. Empirically centred around fifteen key texts by Myrdal, the article argues: first, that a relatively distinct core in Myrdal’s view on international social science can be discerned; second, that her social scientific internationalism by large were in line with the previous and dominating views within UNESCO’s SSD, but also that Myrdal introduced and advocated a more interdisciplinary, applied and polycentric approach to international social science; third, that some discrete but important displacements can be discerned – in spite of the short period – over time.</p> Per Wisselgren ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Planlös forskning? <p>Already in the 1960s, internationalisation was seen as a pressing concern for the humanities as Sweden, among other Western European countries, saw an increased interest in research policy in the context of the technological hype of the Cold War. Existing research in the humanities, mapped through inventory initiatives and discussed at symposia and conferences, was perceived as ill-suited to the new research policy that promoted goals of internationalisation, interdisciplinarity, and collectively organised work. Particularly after the founding of a new governmental organ for planning of research in 1962, representatives of the humanities experienced an increased pressure to revitalise. In spite of real initiatives to start new research projects, a narrative eventually formed that depicted the Swedish humanities as a negative exception due to defunding and lack of public trust, in contrast to the situation of the humanities in other national contexts. This eventually paved the way for a more explicit discourse of crisis, which is important to highlight as previous research has underestimated the role of the early discussions that I analyse in this article. The Swedish case, which should not be understood in isolation as these debates were clearly influenced by international currents, provides new insights about the changing conditions of the humanities in the post-war era of relevance for the expanding international research field on the history of the humanities.</p> Hampus Östh Gustafsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Historiska perspektiv på internationaliseringen av humanvetenskaperna <p>-</p> Thomas Kaiserfeld ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Samtliga avhandlingsrecensioner <p>Fredrik Bertilsson: <em>Frihetstida policyskapande. Uppfostringskommissionen och de akademiska konstitutionerna 1738–1766</em> (Thomas Kaiserfeldt)</p> <p>Alexander Ekelund: <em>Kampen om vetenskapen. Politisk och vetenskaplig formering under den svenska vänsterradikaliseringens era</em> (Carl-Göran Heidegren)</p> <p>Helena Imelda Ek: <em>Erotic insanity. Sex and psychiatry at Vadstena asylum, Sweden 1849–1878</em> (Maja Bondestam)</p> <p>Patrik Möller: <em>Hemligheternas värld. Bror Gadelius och psykiatrins genombrott i det tidiga 1900-talets Sverige</em> (Torbjörn Gustafsson Chorell)</p> <p>Anders Pedersson: <em>En fängslande vetenskap. Kriminologi i Sverige, 1885–1965</em> (Jenny Björkman)</p> * * * ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 Samtliga bokrecensioner <p>Anne Haslund Hansen: <em>Niebuhr’s museum. Artefacts and souvenirs from the Royal Danish Expedition to Arabia 1761–1767 &amp; Anne Haslund Hansen (red.): Arrivals. The life of the Royal Danish Expedition to Arabia 1767–2017</em> (David Dunér)</p> <p>Johan Östling, Erling Sandmo, David Larsson Heidenblad, Anna Nilsson Hammar, Kari H. Nordberg, <em>Circulation of Knowledge: Explorations in the History of Knowledge</em> (Karolina Enquist Källgren)</p> * * * ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01