Lund Archaeological Review 2020-05-12T17:21:57+02:00 Fredrik Ekengren Open Journal Systems <p>Lund Archaeological Review is an international peer-reviewed journal of archaeology published annually by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History at Lund University.</p> Front Matter & Contents 2020-05-12T17:21:55+02:00 2019-01-03T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Editorial 2020-05-12T17:21:55+02:00 Fredrik Ekengren Martin Hansson 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Hemse Stave Church Revisited 2020-05-12T17:21:55+02:00 Gunnar Almevik Jonathan Westin <p>During a restoration of the Romanesque church in Hemse in 1896, the remains of a stave church were found as reused floor tiles. The discovery was important at the time, providing new information to a prestigious research field with few sources of knowledge. Today, the remains of Hemse are esoteric and inaccessible for scholarship. The stave church material in the present museum context seems to have one function, to communicate an age value. The leading question in this article is, what more could we retrieve from this old archaeological material? We may agree that the museum’s archaeological collections and the stave church remains are valuable sources, but for what new kind of knowledge?</p> <p>This article presents the process and outcome of an in-depth examination of the material remains and archival records of Hemse stave church. The aim is to develop or revise how this wooden church may have been constructed and appeared both outside and inside when it functioned as a building. The research method uses three perspectives that give access to different paths of knowledge: a discursive perspective, a forensic perspective, and a dwelling perspective.</p> <p>The research results are contextualized in an interactive model of Hemse that provides a visual experience that gives a sense of the stave church as a real place and not just a theoretical space. The results are grounded on empirical evidence but also on the intellectual discourse of which it is a product. The reconstruction is less of a static representation of our knowledge than a simulation or a research laboratory through which hypotheses can be tried and both researchers and the public can be engaged in a dialogue.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Buried but Alive? 2020-05-12T17:21:55+02:00 Sian Anthony <p>The young, beautiful and wealthy widow Giertrud Birgitte Bodenhoff was buried in Assistens cemetery, Copenhagen on 23 July 1798 but was she dead? Family stories claimed she had been buried alive but was found by grave-robbers who then killed her to conceal their crime. Her skeleton was exhumed in 1953 and the unexpected position of it within the coffin was used to confirm the stories, which echo many similar narratives that betray anxieties over death and premature burial.</p> <p>With advances in archaeological methods and forensic taphonomy, this conclusion requires reinterpretation. The burial environment is not static and the body and later the skeleton can move while undergoing the decay process. The position of the skeleton in burials excavated in the same cemetery from 2009–11 is used to review the Bodenhoff story. How does decomposition move the bones within a well-preserved coffin? Can some typical movements of bones in coffins be identified in Assistens to advance greater understanding of what happens underground in the coffin?</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Bottlenecks and Anarchism 2020-05-12T17:21:56+02:00 Trine Borake <p>In this article, I aim to analyse the relations between central places and their local community using the Tissø complex in Western Zealand, Denmark as a case study. I argue, that social organization is not based on a hierarchical structure, but consists of multilevel dynamics including conflict and cooperation, strategic reactions, acceptance and resistance. To frame the complexity and dynamics of social organization in the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages – a complexity that goes far beyond the Central Place Theory – a dialectic approach is applied to the archaeological material: Political economy and theory of anarchism.</p> <p>By identifying ritual functions and landholdings as examples of ways to accumulate and centralize power, and consequently identifying reactions to such centralization according to anarchism, I will demonstrate a complex social organization based on resistance and justified leaders. The conclusion urges us to consider a complex society, where the local community played an active part in the social organization.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review In the Street 2020-05-12T17:21:56+02:00 Axel Christophersen <p>Lived space is about space entangled in social practices. It is endowed with characteristics that go beyond metric measures and require mental, social and material insight. I will approach the issue of lived urban space perceived as the transformation of performed urban spatial practices. Based on a case study of the main street and its adjacent properties in medieval Trondheim, I intend (1) to recognize and describe practice patterns which have created and recreated the urban populations concept of spaces, and (2) to examine how these practices may have influenced the customary notions of space and spatial relations. I will address issues such as (a) how urban spatial practice can be archeologically observed as performative actions; (b) how changes in spatial practices can illuminate the contemporary conception of space. A basic assumption underpinning my use of proxy data is that the continuous recreation of urbanscape is nourished by the performing of everyday practices.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Medieval Motala 2020-05-12T17:21:56+02:00 Alf Ericsson Sofia Lindberg Karin Lindeblad <p>Motala in western Östergötland is one of the places discussed in connection with urbanization, although it was not formally a town in the Middle Ages. It has a favourable geographical location, in a bay where Lake Vättern flows into Motala Ström. Several major medieval landowners had interests in mills and permanent fishing installations in and around Motala. Historical sources from around 1400 mention some 40 plots, making the place stand out from the surrounding countryside. One source records craftsmen as plot tenants: a smith, a sword grinder and a shoemaker.</p> <p>Recent years’ excavations have uncovered a 14th-century forge and extensive remains of the manufacture of iron, bronze and copper objects. Together with written records, the results show that metals were processed here, mainly during the second half of the 14th century, when Motala can be compared in certain respects with places like Jönköping, Nyköping and Norberg.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Weights and Values in the Gotlandic Heartland 2020-05-12T17:21:56+02:00 Ny Björn Gustafsson Majvor Östergren <p>Roma parish in the centre of Gotland, Sweden, was the point of assembly for the island’s highest political and judicial body – the Gutnal Thing. By scholarly tradition it has been attributed to the area around Roma Abbey, founded by the Cistercian order in the middle of the 12th century. Beginning in 1990, rich Viking Age finds have been recovered during metal detector surveys in the field of Guldåkern, north of the Abbey. The composition of finds lacks parallels on the island and includes a very high number of weights. This paper compiles and discusses these weights in comparison with other Scandinavian finds and relates them to the site and the Gutnal Thing as a social and physical institution.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Tracing Dead Meat 2020-05-12T17:21:57+02:00 Hanna Kivikero <p>This paper aims to explore aspects of food economics in the light of meat butchered and consumed in the castles of Kastelholm and Raseborg during the medieval and early modern period. Bones of domestic animals are a typical group of finds from archaeological sites that have been extensively studied but detailed analyses of butchery patterns are rare. Iconography from the 14th and 15th centuries and the bailiff’s accounts from the castles in question from the 16th centuries are here compared with general patterns of butchery in the zooarchaeological material in order to see how the livestock in the castles were processed into foodstuffs. Whole animals, including heads and entrails, were used as food in the castles, and there seems to be a standardized pattern of butchery in Sweden during the period in question.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Crystals for What? 2020-05-12T17:21:57+02:00 Lars Larsson <p>The excavation of the Hollow Rock Shelter site, Western Cape Province, South Africa, exposed an occupation layer dated to about 80,000 years. The main tool was bifacial shaped points of the Still Bay type. Almost fifty small rock crystals were found within a small concentration. There is no clear use wear to suggest any practical function.</p> <p>Finds of ochre pieces, some with deliberate carving, advanced knapping technique, and shells with perforation indicate that modern thinking with some capacity for abstraction began to evolve during the Still Bay phase. Several late prehistoric and ethnographic examples round the world exhibit the use of rock crystals in connection with symbolic behaviour.</p> <p>It cannot be ruled out that crystals were used as decoration, just as ochre may have had an aesthetic/symbolic meaning similar to body painting.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review People, Runestones and Landscape in Västergötland 2020-05-12T17:21:57+02:00 Carl-Olof Siljedahl Oscar Jacobsson <p>Runestones in the province of Västergötland have been studied quite thoroughly, but there has until recently been a lack of in-depth individual studies of these monuments. Religious and linguistic aspects have dominated runestone research in the province, while few exclusively archaeological and landscape-related studies have been conducted.</p> <p>This article focuses on a landscape analysis of two runestones in Västergötland: Vg 127 in Larv and Vg 174 in Nöre. The results show that there are clear connections between these two runestones, with both standing in connection to well-established roads and border areas between settlement units and land use types. A closer inspection reveals that the stones differ in purpose and although broadly located in similar settings there are clear differences in their local landscape. The runestone in Larv is a manifestation of power while the monument in Nöre instead commemorates a tragic incident. These results illuminate the importance of studying runestones individually and not just as parts of a general cultural phenomenon.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Ships and Adzes in Scandinavian Rock Art 2020-05-12T17:21:57+02:00 Peter Skoglund <p>The ship is the most prominent motif in south Scandinavian rock art. In relation to ships, different kinds of axe images also occur on many sites in eastern Sweden. However, many of these images display an S-shaped handle, which makes the traditional interpretation as an axe questionable. On the other hand, a characteristic of many adzes is their bent, or even S-shaped, handle. This strongly indicates that motifs with S-shaped handles represent adzes and not axes. The most important tool in the traditional shipwright’s toolset is the adze. In this paper it will be argued that notions about the shipbuilding process influenced the occurrence and arrangement of these motifs on the panels.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review Viking Age Combs 2020-05-12T17:21:57+02:00 Sjoerd van Riel <p>Hair combs of bone and antler were commonly used personal items during the Viking Age (AD 800-1000). However, many specifics regarding their production and distribution are still unclear, and the discussion of local production or itinerancy has not been closed. In this paper, I argue that a combination of raw material analysis and emperical study of decoration can lead to new insights regarding local fashions and regional manufacturing. As a case study, an empirical analysis of comb material from three major Viking Age central places (York, Dorestad and Birka) is presented. The study suggests that although many decoration types occur on combs from all three sites, regional patterns can be distinguished that can be interpreted as indicators for local fashions as well as for itenerant comb makers.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lund Archaeological Review